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Assignment No. 1 - Information Search - XML
Assignment No. 1 - Introduction
Assignment No. 1 - Design Goals
Assignment No. 1 - How Can XML be Used?
Assignment No. 1 - Criticism
Assignment No. 2 - Information Search - Video Conferencing(Compulsory)
Assignment No. 2 - Introduction
Assignment No. 2 - History
Assignment No. 2 - Technology

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Assignment No. 1 Information Search - XML

List of Topics:-
1. Buying of a new Computer(Cost, Make, Model, etc.)
2) Comparison of Different Computer Architectures
3) Software Security
4) Video Conferencing (Compulsory - 2nd Assignment on this website)
5) XML (1st assignment on this website)
6) Any other related topic.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications.

Design Goals:-
The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the world. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example in web services.

How Can XML be Used?
Use On The Internet:-
XML is used in many aspects of web development, often to simplify data storage and sharing.

XML Separates Data from HTML:-
If one needs to display dynamic data in their HTML document, it will take a lot of work to edit the HTML each time the data changes. With XML, data can be stored in separate XML files. This way one can concentrate on using HTML for layout and display, and be sure that changes in the underlying data will not require any changes to the HTML. With a few lines of JavaScript code, one can read an external XML file and update the data content of thier web page.

XML Simplifies Data Sharing:-
In the real world, computer systems and databases contain data in incompatible formats. XML data is stored in plain text format. This provides a software- and hardware-independent way of storing data. This makes it much easier to create data that can be shared by different applications.

XML is used to Create New Internet Languages:-
A lot of new Internet languages are created with XML:-

XML Simplifies Platform Changes:-
Upgrading to new systems (hardware or software platforms), is always time consuming. Large amounts of data must be converted and incompatible data is often lost. XML data is stored in text format. This makes it easier to expand or upgrade to new operating systems, new applications, or new browsers, without losing data.

XML Simplifies Data Transport:-
One of the most time-consuming challenges for developers is to exchange data between incompatible systems over the Internet. Exchanging data as XML greatly reduces this complexity, since the data can be read by different incompatible applications.

XML Makes Your Data More Available:-
Different applications can access your data, not only in HTML pages, but also from XML data sources. With XML, your data can be available to all kinds of "reading machines" (Handheld computers, voice machines, news feeds, etc), and make it more available for blind people, or people with other disabilities.

XML and its extensions have regularly been criticized for verbosity and complexity. Mapping the basic tree model of XML to type systems of programming languages or databases can be difficult, especially when XML is used for exchanging highly structured data between applications, which was not its primary design goal. Other criticisms attempt to refute the claim that XML is a self-describing language (though the XML specification itself makes no such claim).

Assignment No. 2 - Information Search - Video Conferencing(Compulsory for all)

List of Topics:-
1. Buying of a new Computer(Cost, Make, Model, etc.)
2) Comparison of Different Computer Architectures
3) Software Security
4) Video Conferencing (Compulsory - 2nd Assignment on this website)
5) XML (1st assignment on this website)
6) Any other related topic.

A videoconference or video conference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions.

Video conferencing was first introduced, with a grand introduction at the 1964 World's Fair held in New York, it had a futuristic quality that no one could possibly dream would take the place of the standard telephone. Though AT&T introduced the Picturephone many years later in 1970, it was still impractical and expensive when first offered to consumers ($160 or Rs.8,000 per month for each fixed end-point).
By 2003, high-speed Internet access became widely available at a very reasonable cost. At the same time, the cost of video capture and display technology also decreased. Thus videoconferencing became even more accesible for the consumer market.

The core technology used in a videoconferencing system is digital compression of audio and video streams in real time. The hardware or software that performs compression is called a codec (coder/decoder). Compression rates of up to 1:500 can be achieved. The resulting digital stream of 1s and 0s is subdivided into labeled packets, which are then transmitted through a digital network of some kind (usually ISDN or IP).

Impact on the General Public:-
Personal videoconferencing systems based on a webcam, personal computer system, software compression and broadband Internet connectivity have become affordable to the general public. Also, the hardware used for this technology has continued to improve in quality, and prices have dropped dramatically. The availability of freeware (often as part of chat programs) has made software based videoconferencing accessible to many.

Impact on Education:-
Videoconferencing provides students with the opportunity to learn by participating in two-way communication forums. Furthermore, teachers and lecturers worldwide can be brought to remote or otherwise isolated educational facilities. Students from diverse communities and backgrounds can come together to learn about one another, although language barriers will continue to persist. Such students are able to explore, communicate, analyze and share information and ideas with one another.

Impact on Business:-
Videoconferencing can enable individuals in distant locations to participate in meetings on short notice, with time and money savings. Technology such as VoIP can be used in conjunction with desktop videoconferencing to enable low-cost face-to-face business meetings without leaving the desk, especially for businesses with widespread offices.

Video Relay Service:-
A Video Relay Service (VRS), also sometimes known as a Video Interpreting Service, is a videotelecommunication service that allows deaf, hard-of-hearing and speech-impaired (D-HOH-SI) individuals to communicate over video telephones and similar technologies with hearing people in real-time, via a sign language interpreter. A similar video interpreting service called Video Remote Interpreting (VRI) is conducted through a different organization often called a 'Video Interpreting Service Provider' (VISP).

Echo Cancellation:-
A fundamental feature of professional videoconferencing systems is Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC). Echo can be defined as the reflected source wave interference with new wave created by source. AEC is an algorithm which is able to detect when sounds or utterances reenter the audio input of the videoconferencing codec, which came from the audio output of the same system, after some time delay.

Some observers argue that three outstanding issues have prevented videoconferencing from becoming a standard form of communication, despite the ubiquity of videoconferencing-capable systems. These issues are:
i)Eye Contact: Eye contact plays a large role in conversational turn-taking, perceived attention and intent, and other aspects of group communication. While traditional telephone conversations give no eye contact cues, many videoconferencing systems are arguably worse in that they provide an incorrect impression that the remote interlocutor is avoiding eye contact. Some telepresence systems have cameras located in the screens that reduce the amount of parallax observed by the users.
ii)Appearance Consciousness: A second psychological problem with videoconferencing is being on camera, with the video stream possibly even being recorded. The burden of presenting an acceptable on-screen appearance is not present in audio-only communication. Early studies by Alphonse Chapanis found that the addition of video actually impaired communication, possibly because of the consciousness of being on camera.
iii)Signal latency: The information transport of digital signals in many steps need time. In a telecommunicated conversation, an increased latency larger than about 150–300 ms becomes noticeable and is soon observed as unnatural and distracting. Therefore, next to a stable large bandwidth, a small total round-trip time is another major technical requirement for the communication channel for interactive videoconferencing.

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